APA 6 and 7 Comparison Tables of Changes

APA 6 and 7 Comparison Tables of ChangesThese comparison tables offer highlights of some changes between APA 6 and APA 7. Note thatthese are not comprehensive tables of all changes between the two editions.CitationsTopic APA 6 (location and old guideline) APA 7 (location and new guideline)In-text citationformat forthree or moreauthorsTable 6.1: In in-text citations ofsources with three to five authors,list all authors the first time, thenuse et al. after that; for sources withsix or more authors, use et al. for allcitations.8.17 (Table 8.1): In in-text citations,use et al. for all citations for sourceswith three or more authors.DirectquotationsfromaudiovisualworksNo guidance in the manual itself(only on the APA Style Blog).8.28: To quote directly from anaudiovisual work, include a timestamp marking the beginning of thequoted material in place of a pagenumber.Dates listed insecondarysourcecitations6.17: Secondary source does notinclude the date of the originalsource.8.6: Secondary source citationincludes the date of the originalsource.ReferencesTopic APA 6 (location and oldguideline)APA 7 (location and newguideline)Number of author names listedin a reference6.27: Provide surnames andinitials for up to sevenauthors in a reference entry.If there are eight or moreauthors, use three spacedellipsis points after the sixthauthor, followed by the final9.8: Provide surnames andinitials for up to 20 authors ina reference entry. If there are21 or more authors, use theellipsis after the 19th,followed by the final authorname (no ampersand).Walden University Writing Center 2author name (noampersand).Reference format whenpublisher and author are thesame7.02: When a work’spublisher and author are thesame, use the word “Author”as the name of the publisherin its reference entry.9.24: When a work’spublisher and author are thesame, omit the publisher inits reference entry.Issue numbers for journalarticles in references6.30; see also 7.01: Includeissue number when journalis paginated separately byissue.9.25: Include issue numberfor all periodicals that haveissue numbers.Publisher location 6.30: Provide publisherlocation (city, state, etc.)before publisher name.9.29: Do not includepublisher location (city, state,etc.) after publisher name in areference.Reference for online workwith no DOI6.32: If an online work hasno DOI, provide the homepage URL of the journal orof the book/report publisher.9.34: If an online work (e.g.,a journal article) has no DOIand was found through anacademic research database,generally, no URL is needed.The reference will look justlike the print version.Hyperlinks in DOI and URLformatting6.32: DOI begins with either“doi:” or with“https://doi.org/” inreferences. Therecommendation that URLsshould be in plain black text,not underlined, followsexamples from APA 6 andthe APA Style Blog.9.35: Both DOIs and URLsshould be presented ashyperlinks (beginning with“http://” or “https://”).Standardize DOIs as startingwith “https://doi.org/”. Indocuments to be read online,use live links.Blue/underlined or plainblack text, not underlined, areboth acceptable.URL retrieval information inreferences7.01: URLs include aretrieval phrase (e.g.,“Retrieved from”).9.35: The words “Retrievedfrom” or “Accessed from” areno longer necessary before aURL. The only time the word“Retrieved” (and notWalden University Writing Center 3“Retrieved from”) is neededis in those rare cases where aretrieval date is necessary(see p. 290, 9.16).Website name in references foronline mediaChapter 7: List the URL butnot the website name in thepublication information.10.15-10.16: Include thename of the website in plaintext, followed by a period,before the URL.Avoiding BiasTopic APA 6 (location and old guideline) APA 7 (location and new guideline)Singularusage of“they”
3.12: No mention of singular humanpronouns other than traditional,binary “he” and “she” and theirrelated forms.4.18: Use singular “they” and relatedforms (them, their, etc.) when (a)referring to a person who uses “they”as their preferred pronoun (b) whengender is unknown or irrelevant.Disability 3.15: Use person-first language. 5.4: Both person-first and identityfirst language “are fine choicesoverall” (p. 137). Okay to use eitherone until you know group preference.Gender andnoun/pronounusagen/a: No guidance. 5.5: Use individuals’ preferred namesand pronouns even if they differ fromofficial documents, keeping in mindconcerns about confidentiality.Race andethnicity–[email protected]n/a: No guidance. 5.7: “[email protected]” for Latino and Latinacan be used to avoid “Latino,” whichis gendered.Race andethnicity–Latinxn/a: No guidance. 5.7: “Latinx” can be used to includeall gender identities.Walden University Writing Center 4General Formatting/MechanicsTopic APA 6 (location and oldguideline)APA 7 (location and new guideline)Italics vs.quotation marks4.07: Use italics to highlight aletter, word, phrase, or sentence asa linguistic example (e.g., theyclarified the distinction betweenfarther and further).6.07: Use quotation marks to refer toa letter, word, phrase, or sentence asa linguistic example of itself (e.g.,they clarified the difference between“farther” and “further”).Numbers 4.31: Numbers in the abstract of apaper should be expressed asnumerals.6.32: Use numerals for numbers 10+for all sections of the paper includingthe abstract (numbers in abstractsnow follow general APA numberrules).Numbersexpressing time4.31: Although numerals should beused for numbers that representtime (among other things) even ifbelow 10, the number should bespelled out if it refers to anapproximate amount of time (e.g.,about three months ago).6.32: Numbers representing time arewritten as numerals, not spelled out,regardless of whether the time isexact or approximate (e.g. “about 7weeks,” “3 decades,” or“approximately 5 years ago”).Punctuation forbulleted listswithin asentence3.04: For bulleted lists within asentence (i.e., when each list item isa word or phrase, not a completesentence), use punctuation aftereach list element in the same wayyou would if the sentence had nobullets (i.e., commas or semicolonsas appropriate and a period after thelast item).6.52*: For bulleted lists within asentence, there is the option to either(a) use no punctuation after any ofthe list items, including the last, or(b) use punctuation after eachbulleted item in the same way youwould if the sentence had no bullets(as was the case in APA 6). Themanual suggests that using nopunctuation may be more appropriatefor lists of shorter, simpler items.*Note: The term “seriation” does notappear in APA 7 and has beenreplaced by “lists” (see 6.50 forlettered lists, 6.51 for numbered lists,and 6.52 for bulleted lists).Walden University Writing Center 5Spacing afterpunctuationmarks4.01: Recommendation to spacetwice after punctuation marks at theend of sentences to aid readers ofdraft manuscripts.6.1: Insert only one space afterperiods or other punctuation marksthat end a sentence.Preferredspellings oftechnologytermsBased on how words were writtenin 6th edition manual, not explicitexamples of spelling, preferredspellings were as follows: “e-mail,”“Internet,” and “web page.” 4.12indicates spelling should conformto standard American English as inMerriam-Webster’s CollegiateDictionary.6.11: Commonly used technologyterms are listed and should be spelledas follows: “email,” “internet,” and“webpage.”Use ofabbreviations inheadingsn/a: No guidance in manual; On thearchived sixth edition APA StyleBlog, APA experts recommendednot using abbreviations in headings.(see post titled “Can I useabbreviations in headings?”)6.25: Abbreviations can be used inheadings if they were previouslydefined in the text (but cannot bedefined in the heading itself), or ifthe abbreviation is exempt fromneeding definition because it appearsas a term in the dictionary.Acceptablefonts8.03: The preferred typeface isTimes New Roman, 12-point.2.19: A variety of fonts areacceptable, with focus onaccessibility for readers. APAaccepts sans serif fonts such asCalibri 11, Arial 11, and Lucida SansUnicode 10, as well as serif fontssuch as Times New Roman 12,Georgia 11, and Computer Modern10. Note: Per our institutionalrequirement, Walden doctoralcapstones should use Times NewRoman 12. Walden courseworktemplates also use Times NewRoman 12, but the other APAendorsed fonts are also acceptable inWalden coursework.Walden University Writing Center 6Paper-Specific FormattingTopic APA 6 (location and old guideline) APA 7 (location and new guideline)Paper titlelength2.01: Recommended title length is nomore than 12 words.2.4: No prescribed limit for titlelength (though recommendation forconciseness).Titleformatting2.1: Title in regular type (not bold). 2.4: Title in bold type.There is an institutional variation fortitles in doctoral capstone documents(i.e., dissertations, doctoral studies,or projects): The title is in plain type.Doctoral capstone students shouldrefer to the APA 7 template for theirprogram posted on the DoctoralCapstone Form and Style Programspage after June 1 to see this Waldeninstitutional variation in place.Headinglevels 3,4,and 5formatting3.03: Levels 3, 4, and 5 are allindented and sentence case.2.27-2.28: Levels 3, 4, and 5 are alltitle case. Level 3 is now flush left,while 4 and 5 remain indented.Tables and FiguresTopic APA 6 (location and old guideline) APA 7 (location and new guideline)Tables 5.1 and 5.16: Table number is plaintype, table title is title case and set initalics; see Sample Tables 5.1 to5.16.7.2 and 7.24: Table number is bold; table titleis title case and set in italics. See SampleTables 7.2 to 7.24.Walden University Writing Center 7Figures 5.1 and 5.12: Figure number andcaption are on same line and areplaced below the figure; see SampleFigures 5.1 to Figure number and caption are onseparate lines and are placed above the figure,and the style matches that for tables: Figurenumber is bold, figure caption is title case and